Water Electrolysis: Decomposition of water molecules via electrical current
Electrolysis Definition: Chemical decomposition produced by passing an electric current through a liquid or solution containing ions.
During the process of electrolysis, two reactions MUST occur simultaneously, one at the cathode (negative) and one at the anode (positive)
These pairs of reactions are called "Redox" reactions.
Reduction: The addition of electrons from the power supply occurs at the cathode
Oxidation: The removal of electrons back to the power supply occurs at the anode.
Within water ionizers, the cathode and anode chambers are isolated from each other, separated by an ionic membrane, which only allowing electrons to pass. Water does not start with dissolved hydrogen gas (H2), it is produced by electrolysis.
This type of water appears in scientific literature as: Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), Hydrogen-rich water, Electrolyzed Water, Alkaline reduced water (ARW), Reduced Water. 1
H2 tablets create hydrogen gas via the reaction of magnesium to water as follows:
Mg + 2H2O => H2 + Mg(OH)2
H2 magnesium tablets consist of elemental magnesium powder (micro/nanoparticles), and fumaric and malic acids which act as catalysts to speed up the process of producing H2 gas. The fumaric and malic acids ensure the pH of the water is not raised beyond a palatable level. Also, the tablets contain a simple sugar called Maltose, that acts as a binder which holds the tablet together before it dissolves in water.
The tablets are one of the most affordable and convenient ways to experiencing H2 therapeutic benefits anywhere. 2
These units are the newest iteration of hydrogen water devices on the market. These devices are unique, as they are the first real attempt to produce devices designed for dissolving higher levels of molecular hydrogen in water without affecting/elevating the pH of the water. These units use PEM/SPE (proton exchange membrane, solid polymer electrolyte) technology, which allows for the device to produce H2 no matter the source water conditions (RO, tap, well, high-TDS, low-TDS, etc). Some even have built-in dissolver technology, specifically designed for dissolving hydrogen gas into the water. These units are designed for one reason or purpose: consuming and using hydrogenated water.
There are multiple designs of HIM/HIT units on the market, however, they all have similarities.
Portable hydrogen water generators are handheld electrolysis devices. These devices can use either the standard ionizer technology (producing H2 and increasing pH as a byproduct) or the new HIM/HIT technology (produces H2, does not increase pH). These devices are becoming very popular on the market today. Depending on the manufacture and quality of the device, they can produce .4 to 1+ ppm generally in 8 to 16 oz (250-500ml) in a relatively short matter of time (5- 10 mins).
Advantages of H2 water portables:
For more information on the chemistry of these devices pertain to electrolysis, check out Water electrolysis and HIM/HIT (PEM/SPE) section.
Hydrogen inhalation produces H2 from the process of electrolysis and mixes H2 with air, keeping the H2 concentration under 4%. This ensures the safety of the person receiving treatment, as H2 under 4% is non-explosive. This application has shown great benefit in the scientific literature, as it allows larger amounts of H2 gas to enter the blood stream to be readily distributed throughout the body.
These devices are not yet popular on the market but they will continue to gain popularity as H2 awareness grows and technologies continue to improve.
Hydrogen Intraperitoneal injection (IP injection) is the injection of a hydrogen infused solution into the peritoneum (body cavity). Typically this solution is hydrogen saline. This method is applied more to animals in animal studies than humans in human studies.
Intravenous drip is also known as the acronym "IV". This application/method of administration will be used more in a clinical and medical setting, such as a hospital. This method of administration of molecular hydrogen has demonstrated to be beneficial for a wide variety of degenerative diseases.
This application is simple and effective, infusing molecular hydrogen into saline solution meant for the eye. This option is not available to the public as of now but appears in scientific literature.
Hydrogen baths are the most popular topical application of molecular hydrogen to date. Hydrogen baths devices raise the dissolved hydrogen levels in the bath water similar to hydrogen water generating devices. There are multiple studies demonstrating the therapeutic effects of hydrogen baths for skin disorders. This method of administration is seen more in China and japan, where there are clinics that offer hydrogen baths to patients. There are devices for hydrogen baths on the market in Asia.
Hydrogen gas can be applied topically via cream and H2 foam. Since H2 can be infused to a wide range of aqueous solutions and oil (lipid) based solutions, it is a prime candidate for topical medication applications. Also since hydrogen is a gas, it can easily be infused into a foam form. This application will probably be more prevalent in the future medically and commercially.
Ingestible Mg H2 tablets work off the same principle of solubilized H2 Mg tablets. The contents/reactants of the tablets will produce H2 gas once it comes in contact with an aqueous solution or stomach acid. 1
Mg + 2H2O => H2 + Mg(OH)2
Mg + 2HCl => MgCl2 + H2
Some ingestible H2 tablets use metallic calcium (Ca) to produce H2. The contents/reactants of the tablets will produce H2 gas once it comes is contact with an aqueous solution or stomach acid.
Ca + 2H2O => Ca(OH)2 + H2
Ca + 2HCl => CaCl2 + H2
This method might not be as effective as solubilized H2 (Mg) tablets, which get directly into the bloodstream via water absorption through the small intestine into the portal vein. When ingestible H2 tablets are consumed the H2 gas that is generated in the stomach has no direct path to travel to get into the blood stream. H2 will have to diffuse through the tissue of the stomach first before being push throughout the circulatory system.
Hydrogen water is now being canned or package into aluminum pouches/cans. These are typically 8 to 16oz of water containing .5 to 2 ppm of hydrogen gas. They are convenient and can be an effective way of consuming H2. Although this is not the cheapest route for consuming H2 daily.